International Journal on Magnetic Particle Imaging IJMPI
Vol. 8 No. 1 Suppl 1 (2022): Int J Mag Part Imag

Proceedings Articles

VivoTrax+ improves the detection of cancer cells with magnetic particle imaging

Main Article Content

Julia Gevaert , Kyle Van Beek (University of Western Ontario), Olivia Sehl , Paula Foster 


Cellular imaging is a rapidly growing field as novel tracers and imaging techniques are developed. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) detects superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which can be used to label cells. The unique detection of SPIO-labeled cells boasts MPI as a sensitive modality; as such, the type of SPIO has a critical role in determining sensitivity and resolution. For cell tracking applications, the ideal SPIO should label cells efficiently and retain its sensitivity after cellular uptake. VivoTraxTM, a commercially available and commonly used SPIO for MPI, was recently re-released as VivoTrax+TM with an improved size distribution enriched for larger particles. In this study, VivoTrax+TM is shown to enhance cellular labeling and improve in vitro/in vivo sensitivity. Importantly, the sensitivity of both SPIO significantly decreased after cellular internalization. The results from this study emphasize the importance of translating SPIO performance in vivo to maintain its utility for cell tracking applications.

Article Details


[1] H. Nejadnik, Ferumoxytol can be used for quantitative Magnetic Particle Imaging of Transplanted Stem Cells, Mol Imaging Biol, vol. 21(3), pp. 465-472, Jun. 2019.
[2] O.C. Sehl, Trimodal cell tracking in vivo: Combining iron- and fluorine-based magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic particle imaging to monitor the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells and the ensuing inflammation, Tomography, vol. 5(4), pp. 367–376, Dec. 2019.
[3] B. Zheng, Quantitative magnetic particle imaging monitors the transplantation, biodistribution, and clearance of stem cells in vivo, Theranostics, vol. 6, pp. 291–301, Jan. 2016.
[4] A.V. Makela, Quantifying tumor associated macrophages in breast cancer: a comparison of iron and fluorine-based MRI cell tracking. Sci. Rep., vol. 7, pp. 42109, Feb. 2017.
[5] J. Bulte, Quantitative “hot-spot” imaging of transplanted stem cells using superparamagnetic tracers and magnetic particle imaging, Tomography, vol. 1, pp. 91–97, Dec. 2015.
[6] P. Wang, Magnetic particle imaging of islet transplantation in the liver and under the kidney capsule in mouse models. Quant. Imaging Med. Surg., vol. 8, pp. 114–122, Mar. 2018.
[7] D. Eberbeck, Multicore magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging. IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol. 49, pp. 269–274, Jan. 2013.
[8] D. Eberbeck, How the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles determines their magnetic particle imaging performance, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 98, pp. 182502, May. 2011.
[9] A. Rose, Human vison, in Vision. Optical Physics and Engineering, Springer, Boston, MA.
[10] H. Arami, Intracellular performance of tailored nanoparticle tracers in magnetic particle imaging. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 115, pp. 17B306, Mar. 2014.
[11] H. Suzuka, Magnetic nanoparticles in macrophages and cancer cells exhibit different signal behavior on magnetic particle imaging. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., vol. 19(11), pp. 6857-6865, Nov. 2019.
[12] H. Paysen, Cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles imaged and quantified by magnetic particle imaging, Sci. Rep., vol. 10, pp. 1922, Feb. 2020.
[13] E. Teeman, Intracellular dynamics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging, Nanoscale, vol. 11, pp. 7771–7780, Mar. 2019.

Most read articles by the same author(s)