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There are currently over 800 registered clinical trials that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue repair and immunomodulation. However, the fate of MSCs in vivo including their overall biodistribution and local tissue quantities is not fully known, especially how these parameters change over time. Multi-modal imaging techniques that can track cell therapeutics may allow facilitation and optimization of clinical translation therapeutic outcome. We developed a novel superparamagnetic radiopaque nanocomplex, Albumin-Bi2S3-SPIO (ABS), for labeling of MSCs. ABS exhibited excellent in MPI, MRI, and CT imaging properties, allowing tri-modal imaging use a single nanoplatform.
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